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European wind loading standards

The adoption of National Annexes to EN 1991-1-4 of the CEN member states (“National members” and “Affiliates”) has evolved remarkably during the past years.

“National members” are regular members of the Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN). Regular members are national standardization bodies of the EU and EFTA mem­ber states. Additionally, the general assembly may offer a regular membership to can­di­dates for an EU or EFTA membership.

“Affiliates” may be national standardization bodies that reside in the “European neigh­bor­hood” and are regular or corresponding members of the International Orga­ni­zation of Standardization (ISO). Historically, the term “European neighborhood” is interpreted quite widely. Besides Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, it includes larger parts of the Mediterranean and of the Middle East. Originally, this status was supposed to be a probationary membership for EU- and EFTA-candidates, but today it is also offered to other interested countries.

Current regular CEN members are:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Roma­nia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

“Affiliates“ within Europe are:
Albania, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia and Ukraine.

“Affiliates” outside Europe are:
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Egypt, Georgia, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia.

Many national standardization bodies have webpages or even offer online shops where standards may be ordered. But in several cases requests via e-mail are necessary, even though these are not always answered or answered inadequately.

The current state shows an advanced state of adoption of National Annexes among the regular CEN members.

The following groups of countries may be distinguished:

  • The current 33 regular CEN members with very few exceptions have adopted the EN 1991-1-4 and have published National Annexes. Exceptions are Macedonia, Malta, Spain, Switzerland and Turkey. For Malta the estimated date of publication for the National Annex is unknown. For Macedonia no information was available. The Swiss standard SiA 261 has been partially revised and was republished in July 2014. In Spain and Turkey valid national standards are known, however, no National Annexes to EN 1991-1-4 are published.
  • Among the “Affiliates” only Belarus has published a National Annex to EN 1991-1-4. Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro are currently developing National Annexes, but have not yet decided when these will be published.
  • Armenia has no national wind loading standard and does not consider adopting the Eurocode.
  • Ukraine has not published a National Annex. The valid Ukrainian standard shows a lot of similarities to the Russian standard, even though both codes are not identical.
  • Russia and Azerbaijan are still using the standard of the former USSR.
  • Israel does have an independent wind loading standard.

No official wind loading standards were found by means of the web search neither for Albania and Moldova, nor for Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia. Yet, unofficial wind loading recommendations exist in many if not in all of these countries.