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Fire simulation with large thermal heat release

When conducting smoke extraction tests the fire simulation method must be able to simulate the characteristic properties of a real fire. However, the realistic simulation of the plume is of essential importance.

Hot fire gases rising from the fire source form a highly turbulent convective flow in form of a plume. Ambient air is mixed constantly at the borders of the jet into the fire gas. The generated smoke gas mass flow depends from the fire intensity, the turbulence intensity in the plume and the height and the circumference of the plume up to the smoke gas layer. The fire intensity results from the thermal power per area, the so called specific heat release rate (DIN 18232-2) and the increasing fire area and the extent, respectively of the fire development.

Thermal and thus very realistic plume flows can be generated by the patented I.F.I. fire simulation device. This device is based on a gas burner technology and also shown as example in VDI 6019-1. The device consists of modular components to be positioned variably. The liquid gas burners are controllable independently. Thus, the development of the heat release rate and the propagation of the fire can be simulated as often as required under the same boundary conditions.

This procedure allows the quantitative and qualitative testing of functionality and efficiency of the measure for the discharge of smoke and separation (division) of smoke section, especially in large building, e.g. exhibition halls, atria, arenas and multi-storey halls. Configurations with 10 burners and a maximum heat release of 1.2 MW or with three large burners with a maximum heat release of in total 7.5 MW, respectively, can be used. For special fire scenarios other burner configurations can be provided by I.F.I. on request.

Also for thermal real fire tests special spoilers provide the necessary lateral turbulence and velocity distribution of the plume. The visualisation of the fire gases and the smoke propagation in the plume as well as under the ceiling is achieved by adding fog generated by a harmless and non-polluting fog fluid. For these tests four large smoke generators are used simultaneously. Due to the necessary amount of heating power  for the evaporation of the fog fluid during the tests each smoke generator requires an electric circuit of 230V and 16 A fuse protection.